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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Periventricular pseudocysts are cystic cavities that lack the ependymal cell lining found in true cysts. The aim of this study was to characterize periventricular pseudocysts and related findings and their neurodevelopmental outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of periventricular pseudocysts detected prenatally on fetal MR imaging in 26 fetuses. The fetuses were divided into group A (n = 8), which included cases with isolated periventricular pseudocysts, and group B (n = 18), which included cases of periventricular pseudocysts with additional findings. Cases were further subdivided into connatal cysts and subependymal pseudocysts. Data collected included prenatal history, MR imaging features, sonographic follow-up, and neurodevelopmental outcome.
RESULTS: All cases in group A (n = 8) had a normal outcome. In group B (n = 18), 6 pregnancies were terminated and 2 had an abnormal outcome. Both cases with an abnormal outcome involved patients with subependymal pseudocysts. No significant association was found between the morphologic features on MR imaging and the neurodevelopmental outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Neurodevelopmental outcome in cases of isolated periventricular pseudocysts detected prenatally appears to be normal. A detailed evaluation should be performed to rule out additional brain findings, chromosomal aberration, and fetal malformation. This evaluation should include the following: maternal TORCH status, detailed fetal sonographic anatomic evaluation, fetal echocardiogram, fetal brain MR imaging, amniocentesis and karyotyping/comparative genomic hybridization, and genetic counseling. Additional findings on MR imaging, including mild-to-moderate dilated ventricles, asymmetric ventricles, or T2 hyperintense signal in the white matter without other findings or major fetal abnormality, appear to be benign. Connatal cysts appear to be benign.
- intrauterine growth restriction
- periventricular pseudocysts
- subependymal pseudocysts
- termination of pregnancy
- toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes virus
- © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology