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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has failed to reduce the high prevalence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to test the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy on brain metabolite ratios in chronic HIV infection by using proton chemical shift imaging.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 2D chemical shift imaging in 91 subjects (31 HIV+ patients with chronic infection on combination antiretroviral therapy, 19 combination antiretroviral therapy–na|fkve HIV+ subjects with chronic infection, and 41 healthy controls), covering frontal and parietal subcortical white and cingulate gyrus gray matter, analyzing ratios of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr on long-TE and mIns/Cr on short-TE MR spectroscopy. We correlated neurometabolic parameters with immunologic, clinical, data and combined antiretroviral therapy efficacy scores.
RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in NAA/Cr (P < .05) in HIV-positive patients on and without combined antiretroviral therapy, compared with healthy controls in all locations. There were significant differences in Cho/Cr (P < .05) and mIns/Cr (P < .05) ratios between HIV+ patients on and without therapy, compared with healthy controls, but these differed in distribution. There were no significant differences in brain metabolite ratios between the 2 groups of chronically HIV-infected patients. The CNS penetration efficacy score showed weak positive correlations only with Cho/Cr ratios in some locations.
CONCLUSIONS: The impact of combined antiretroviral therapy on the process of neuronal loss and dysfunction in chronic HIV infection appears to be suboptimal in successful peripheral suppression of viral replication. Spectroscopic imaging might be a useful tool for monitoring the effects of different combined antiretroviral therapy regimens on brain metabolite ratios.
- anterior cingulate gyrus
- asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment
- combined antiretroviral therapy
- CNS penetration efficacy index
- frontal deep white matter
- frontal subcortical white matter
- HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
- posterior cingulate gyrus
- parietal subcortical white matter
- © 2017 American Society of Neuroradiology