Table 1:

Localization of field defects and disorders of higher cortical visual function

Field Defect or SyndromeLocalization
Unilateral central scotomaOptic nerve
Bitemporal hemianopsiaChiasm
Junctional defect (ipsilateral central scotoma and a contralateral superior temporal field cut)Anterior chiasm
Central temporal scotomasPosterior chiasm
Incongruous homonymous hemianopsia, afferent pupillary defect, and bow-tie atrophyOptic tract
Homonymous sectoranopiaLateral geniculate nucleus
Incongruous homonymous hemianopsiaLateral geniculate nucleus
Homonymous upper quadrant defect “pie in the sky”Temporal lobe
Homonymous defect, denser inferiorlyParietal lobe
Gerstmann syndrome and a homonymous defect, denser inferiorlyParietal lobe
Complete homonymous hemianopsiaNot well-localized
Homonymous upper quadrantanopsia with macular sparingOccipital lobe (lower bank)
Homonymous lower quadrantanopsia with macular sparingOccipital lobe (upper bank)
Isolated homonymous defect (macular sparing) without other neurologic findingsOccipital lobe
Anton syndrome (cortical blindness)Bilateral occipital lobe lesions
Balint syndromeBilateral occipitoparietal lesions
Alexia without agraphiaLeft occipital lobe and angular gyrus
Central achromatopsiaBilateral occipito-temporal lesions