Table 3:

Mean operator exposure rate measurements during kyphoplasty (KP), vertebroplasty with a CDS (VP-CDS), and vertebroplasty with syringes (VP-S)

KPVP-CDSVP-S
Needle/device placement0.81 ± 0.761.05 ± 0.890.32 ± 0.33
    95% CI0.6–1.00.9–1.30.2–0.5
Cement delivery1.74 ± 3.872.88 ± 2.710.21 ± 0.35
    95% CI0.9–2.62.3–3.50.05–0.4
Mean total exposure rate1.14 ± 1.631.9 ± 1.530.3 ± 0.27
    95% CI0.8–1.51.6–2.20.2–0.4
  • Note:— Measurements (μSv/min) include means ± SD.