Radiation-reduction techniques (in grays)a

Mean% ReductionMinimumMaximum
Unmodified12.8 ± 7.72.436.1
Fixed replacing portable CT12.5 ± 7.52.32.235.3
Low-dose portable CT12.6 ± 7.51.92.235.5
CTA replacing DSA12.2 ± 7.64.90.335.5
MRI replacing CT12.0 ± 7.36.60.334.2
Lower fluoroscopy rate11.3 ± 6.811.62.432.7
3.6–2.7 μGy per frame11.0 ± 6.513.82.431.1
3.6–1.8 μGy per frame9.1 ± 5.329.12.326.7
All above6.4 ± 4.056.60.018.7
  • a Calculated dose based on individual specific modifications of imaging techniques as described in the text. Dose was calculated for each patient and individual study and reported for the collective group.