Study populations

Groupn (M/F)Age (SD) (yr)Disease Duration (yr)
Control20 (9/11)46.1 (9.3)
RRMS11 (4/7)43.9 (11.5)12.7 (8.9)
SPMS13 (6/7)49.7 (5.6)16.5 (6.9)
PPMS8 (4/4)50.6 (3.6)11.5 (6.5)
All patients with MS32 (14/18)47.9 (8.2)13.8 (7.6)
  • Note.—M indicates male; F, female; RRMS, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis; SPMS, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis; PPMS, primary progressive multiple sclerosis; MS, multiple sclerosis. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis were defined by the Poser criteria (13). Primary progressive multiple sclerosis was defined by a progressive clinical worsening from onset for 12 months or more with no episode of acute neurologic exacerbation.