Vascular responses to aberrant WSS conditions reported in literature

Pathobiologic Responses to High WSS and Positive WSS GradientaPathobiologic Responses to Low WSS and High OSIb
EC damage24,45Proinflammatory ECs that are “leaky” and “sticky”21,62
EC turnover25,72Increased ROS62
MMP production by mural cells25Increased inflammatory cell infiltration70
ECM degradation36MMP production by macrophages61
Medial thinning36SMC proliferation and migration63
Mural cell apoptosis25Thrombus formation23,63
  • Note:—EC indicates endothelial cell; ROS, reactive oxygen species; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; OSI, oscillatory shear index; SMC, smooth muscle cell.

  • a From the literature on intracranial aneurysm genesis.

  • b From the literature on atherogenesis.