Table 1:

BCVI screening criteria

Signs and symptomsArterial hemorrhage/expanding cervical hematoma
Cervical bruit
Focal neurologic deficit
Neurologic examination incongruous with head CT scan findings
Stroke on secondary CT scan
Risk factorsMaxillo facial fractures–Le Fort II or III fracture
Cervical spine fracture patterns: extension into the transverse foramen, C1–C3 vertebral fractures
Skull base fracture extending to involve the carotid canal
Diffuse axonal injury with GCS score <6
Near hanging with anoxic brain injury
  • Note:—GCS indicates Glasgow Coma Scale. Table adapted from Cothren et al.34