Table 1:

Baseline characteristicsa

CharacteristicsControls (n = 157)FGR (n = 22)CHD (n = 20)Missing
Maternal
    Age at enrollment (yr)32.3 (21–44)29.7 (21–41)33.0 (22–48)7
    Nulliparous69 (44)13 (68)11 (58)6
    Mode of conception (IVF/ICSI)48 (31)2 (10)2 (11)3
    Geographic background6
        Western126 (81)15 (79)18 (90)
        Non-Western29 (19)4 (21)2 (10)
    Educational level8
        Low20 (13)4 (20)0
        Intermediate56 (36)12 (60)7 (39)
        High79 (51)4 (20)11 (61)
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)22.9 (15.2–39.7)22.9 (17.6–43.4)23.4 (18.0–35.8)19
Periconception folic acid initiation (yes)149 (96)15 (79)18 (95)6
Periconception smoking (yes)25 (16)3 (16)3 (16)8
Periconception alcohol consumption (yes)44 (29)4 (21)10 (53)9
Neonatal
    Birth weight (g)3345 (2035–4380)1400 (400–2900)3420 (1650–4140)2
    Gestational age at birth (wk)39+1 (37+0–41+5)34+2 (26+3–39+3)38+6 (28+4–41+5)2
    Males82 (52)11 (50)13 (65)0
  • Note:—BMI indicates body mass index; IVF/ICSI, in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection; ICSI, intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  • a Data are presented as median and range or number and percentage. Missing data were due to incomplete questionnaires.