Table 2:

Etiology of the false-positive flagged studies

False-Positive EtiologyCountPercentage of All Flagged Studies (n = 173)
Degeneration5531.8
    Degenerative ossicle1810.4
    Facet degeneration148.1
    Calcified ligament63.5
    Cortical irregularity74.0
    Osteopenia42.3
    Cystic degeneration42.3
    Atlantodental joint10.6
    Osteophyte10.6
Noncervical pathology158.7
    Rib fracture84.6
    Degeneration, thoracic42.3
    Skull fracture21.2
    Carotid calcification10.6
Anatomic variant105.8
    Nonunion vertebrae42.3
    Transitional anatomy21.2
    Limbus21.2
    Bifid spinous process10.6
    Secondary transverse foramen10.6
Nutrient foramen95.2
Artifact74.0
Unknown84.6
Other21.7
    DISH10.6
    Occipital suture10.6
Total10661.3
  • Note:—DISH indicates diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.