Table 2:

Regional difference in metabolite concentrations adjusted for PMAa

CerebellumRight Basal GangliaRight Frontal LobePair-Wise Comparisons (P Value)
C vs RBGC vs RFRBG vs RF
Metabolites
 GABA+2.56 (SD, 0.1)2.25 (SD, 0.1)1.63 (SD, 0.1)↑.04↑<.001↑<.001
 Glx5.95 (SD, 0.2)5.68 (SD, 0.3)4.33 (SD, 0.3)NS↑<.001↑<.001
 NAA3.84 (SD, 0.1)6.72 (SD, 0.2)4.31 (SD, 0.2)↓<.001↓.05↑<.001
 Cr6.67 (SD, 0.1)6.72 (SD, 0.2)3.64 (SD, 0.2)NS↑<.001↑<.001
 Cho3.08 (SD, 0.1)2.33 (SD, 0.1)1.88 (SD, 0.1)↑<.001↑<.001↑<.001
 Glu3.80 (SD, 0.2)3.78 (SD, 0.2)3.07 (SD, 0.2)NS↑.006↑.02
 Gln2.55 (SD, 0.1)1.95 (SD, 0.2)1.72 (SD, 0.2)↑.005↑<.001NS
 GSH1.89 (SD, 0.1)1.23 (SD, 0.1)1.05 (SD, 0.1)↑<.001↑<.001NS
 mIns8.02 (SD, 0.3)5.10 (SD, 0.3)6.05 (SD, 0.3)↑<.001↑<.001↓.017
Metabolite ratios
 GABA+/Cho0.85 (SD, 0.4)0.97 (SD, 0.0)0.86 (SD, 0.4)↑.03NSNS
 Glx/Cho1.97 (SD, 0.1)2.53 (SD, 0.1)2.26 (SD, 0.1)↓<.001↓.004↑.026
 NAA/Cho1.31 (SD, 0.0)3.00 (SD, 0.1)2.34 (SD, 0.0)↓<.001↓<.001↑<.001
 Cr/Cho2.18 (SD, 0.0)2.96 (SD, 0.1)1.96 (SD, 0.0)↓<.001↑<.001↑<.001
 GABA+/Glx0.45 (SD, 0.2)0.39 (SD, 0.0)0.41 (SD, 0.2)NSNSNS
  • Note:—↑ indicates higher than; ↓, lower than; C, cerebellum; RBG, right basal ganglia; RF, right frontal lobe; GLN, glutamine.

  • a Metabolites are marginal means (SD, standard error, in international units) adjusted for PMA. Metabolites are the following: n = 38 for the cerebellum, n = 30 for the right basal ganglia, and n = 38 for the right frontal lobe. Metabolite ratios are the following: cerebellum (n = 51), right basal ganglia (n = 36), and left frontal lobe (n = 48).