Table 2:

Patient demographics, imaging findings, symptoms, treatment, and outcomes

PatientAgeSexOther Imaging FindingsCTM FindingsSymptomsTreatmentOutcome
128FHigh-probability brain MR imagingT12-L1 CVF on left; T11-12 on right; contrast in the renal collecting systemOrthostatic headache, multifocal painT11 nerve root ligationInitial relief with subsequent recurrence of symptoms in the setting of Marfan syndrome
250MIntermediate-probability brain MR imagingCVF at left L2-3 and contrast in the renal collecting systemOrthostatic headacheBlood patch, transvenous embolization of the left L2 paraspinal veinDramatic symptom improvement following embolization
352MHigh-probability brain MR imaging, positive cisternogram findingsRight T10 distal nerve root sleeve tear with extradural contrast first detected at L2-3Orthostatic headache, vision changes, pulsatile tinnitusHemi-laminectomy right T10-11, repair of CSF leakComplete symptom resolution sustained for at least 1 year
434FIntermediate-probability brain MR imagingFocus of CSF leak arising from the right lateral thecal sac at T7-8 thought to represent dural tear; contrast in the renal collecting systemOrthostatic headache, facial and hand paresthesiaThree targeted blood patchesImprovement after 3 targeted blood patches with recurrence of symptoms
550FMultiple nerve root diverticula on spine MR imagingFaint linear hyperattenuation extending from a right T11-12 nerve sleeve diverticulum thought to represent CVFOrthostatic headache, vision changesTwo targeted and 1 multifocal blood patchTransient improvement after 2 targeted and 1 multifocal blood patch
  • Note:—M indicates male; F, female.